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copyright Glenn Luttrell 2020
Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, King John and the Sheriff of Nottingham
Copyright 2020 Glenn Luttrell
Geoffrey Luttrell, who held properties in Nottinghamshire, England, was a follower of John, Earl of Mortain, Lord of Ireland, when John was in rebellion against his older brother, Richard, King of England and Duke of Normandy. In 1194, after the siege of Nottingham Castle, held by Prince John since 1191, King Richard dispossesses Geoffrey of his lands as punishment for his support of John. Geoffrey is rewarded by John, upon his ascension to the throne in 1199, with the return of his Nottinghamshire properties, knighthood and additional properties and income for life. He is in almost continual service to the King as defender, administrator, counsellor and trusted emissary until his death in 1216. Although enriched by gifts of the King in England and Ireland, it is by his marriage to Frethesant Paynell, of Hooten Paynell, in county Yorkshire, near Nottinghamshire, that Geoffrey becomes possessed of a vast, baronial estate which later vests upon his English son and heir, Andrew.
Philip Marc, one of several men of Touraine, France, supporters of King John in his war with King Philip II of France, comes to England after John’s defeat by Philip. These men of Touraine are employed by John in England as enforcers of his will and protectors from his own people. In 1209, Philip Marc is given the significant position, in the important midlands of England, of Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the King’s Forests. He becomes known as one of the King’s most ruthless and evil Sheriffs. Like the other men of Touraine, Philip Marc is so detested by the noblemen of England that he is specifically named in Magna Carta, in June 1215, as one who should never be allowed to hold office in England again. Nevertheless, he does retain his position and relationship with King John and John’s successor in 1216, King Henry III. Upon the death of Geoffrey Luttrell in 1216, Philip is awarded by the King, the guardianship of Geoffrey’s English son and daughter and their marriages to his own son and daughter. Philip also, with the King’s blessing, acquires all of the estates belonging to Sir Geoffrey Luttrell in Ireland.
Andrew Luttrell, son and heir of Geoffrey Luttrell and son-in-law of Philip Marc, is the ancestor of the Luttrells of England. Geoffrey’s unknown Irish heir, for whom, shortly before his death, he arranged the marriage to a daughter of the house of Tuit in county Meath, is presumed to be the ancestor of the Luttrells of Luttrellstown, county Dublin, Ireland and the immigrant founders of the Luttrells in America.
1194. Geoffrey Luttrell’s ancestry is undocumented. The first record of him is in 1194. He holds property in Nottinghamshire.
"The fact that a certain Osbert Lotrel had the farm of Arques in Normandy in 1180 and 1198 rather tends to confirm the idea that the family (Luttrell) was of foreign origin." (7) and . . .Robert Lotrel in Normandy in 1195. . . (6) Osbert Lotrel is referred to as the "praepositus" (Chief) of Arques.*Aa
In 1204 Arques Castle,Arques-la-Bataille Castle, was the last Norman stronghold to surrender to Philip II of France (during the reign of King John), who had fruitlessly layed siege to it 2 years before.*Bb
*Aa Magni rotuli scaccarii Normanniæ sub regibus Angliæ By Great Britain Exchequer, Thomas Stapleton
“Geoffrey Luttrell, acquired a small property at Gamston and Bridgeford in Nottinghamshire in the later part of the twelfth century.” (7)
Geoffrey Luterel was resident in the county of Nottingham, and on the Pipe roll of Nottingham and Derby of the sixth year of King Richard the First (1194/95) (13) 1194 Galfr Luterel became Lord of the Manors of Gameleston and Bridgeford (near Nottingham). (24)
If Geoffrey Luttrell is a knight, as he seems to be, he is most likely at least 21 years of age and the son of a knight or lord. His land may be an award for his military service. (35)
John, the fourth son of King Henry II, was made Lord of Ireland and made his first trip to that country in 1185. John’s older brother, Richard reigned as King of England and Duke of Normandy from 1189 – 1199. John was made Count of Mortain with the addition of several valuable lands in Lancaster and the counties of Cornwall, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Nottingham and Somerset and was married to the wealthy Isabella of Gloucester with the aim of buying his loyalty to Richard whilst the King was on crusade. Richard retained royal control of key castles in these counties, thereby preventing John from accumulating too much military and political power. (30) John, however took control of Nottingham Castle and other strategic castles in 1191, while Richard was on crusade.
The siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194
The siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194 by King Richard’s forces is told in (23). Prince John, who had taken possession of Nottingham Castle in 1191, during King Richard’s absence, was in France when Richard returned and lay siege to the castle, defended by John’s supporters. The historical records show that sixty-seven knights were at Nottingham Castle. They seemingly did not believe that King Richard had returned to England. They thought the besiegers were attempting to obtain the castle by a ruse. That may be why they were punished with a fine and forfeiture of their estates instead of by death at the hands of the King’s army.
Those prisoners, supporters of Prince John, who had been taken in the castles of Nottingham, Tickhill, Marlborough and Lancaster, and in Mont St Michel, were brought to the King at Winchester on the day after the close of Easter. “The king of England separated the wealthier men from the others who were taken in the castles of Nottingham and Tickhill and the other castles of Count John and put [them] in prison for ransom; the others he allowed to go away to find pledges . . . and each one of them brought pledges of 100 marks if they should not return to the king’s court”. Under the titles of “Fines made for the knights and men of Count John” and “Chattels and lands of the king’s enemies seised in the king’s hand by the sheriff”, the Pipe Rolls record the names of some of the men from Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire so fined at Winchester on 20th April. These fines were slowly paid during the rest of Richard’s reign. There were a few remaining on the Pipe Roll when John became king in 1199. Thereafter they disappear; they were quietly dropped. Whatever faults King John had he rarely forgot service loyally given. (23)
1194. King Richard confiscated the properties of Geoffrey Luttrell in 1194 because of Geoffrey’s allegiance to Prince John. John restored Geoffrey’s lands after King Richard’s death and John’s ascension to the throne in 1199.
"During the absence of Richard I in Palestine, this Geoffrey Luttrell took part in the unsuccessful rebellion of John, Earl of Mortain, and was consequently deprived of his estates in the county of Nottingham. He was reinstated, however, on the accession of the Earl of Mortain to the English throne, and from that time until his death he seems to have been constantly employed in the King's service. (6)
(Very few corrections have been made to these historic records from the source material)
Geoffrey Luterel was resident in the county of Nottingham, and on the Pipe roll of Nottingham and Derby of the sixth year of King Richard the First (1194/95), William Briwerre, the sheriff^, renders accompt of thirty-four shillings of the lands of the same Geoffrey ; and on the roll of the first year of King John (1199/1200), Geoffrey Luterel renders accompt of fifteen marks to have seisin of land in the soke of Clifton, of which he had been disseised by reason of his adherence to John, when count of Mortain. In the following year (1200/1201) a charter of Geoffrey Luterel is entered on the roll of charters to this effect ; " John, by the grace of God king of England, &c. Know ye that we have granted and by our present charter confirmed to GeoflSrey Luterel the reasonable donation, which Gerbod de Scaud made to him of fifteen bovates of land in Gamston and in Normanton, and the reasonable donation, which Gerard de Rodes made to him of all his demesne in Bridgeford and of sixteen bovates of land in Bridgeford and in Keyworth, with the meadow of Willies, to have and to hold to him and his heirs of them and their heirs freely and quit and entirely, as the charters of the donors reasonably testify. Witnesses, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, William, bishop of London, Geoffrey Fitz-Piers, earl of Essex, William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, William riwerre, Hugh Bardolf, Robert de Turnham. Given by the hand of Simon, archdeacon of Wells, at Canterbury, 28th day of March, second year of our reign." (1201.) (13)
The Luterels, whom Thoroton describes as " the most eminent and ancient owners of Gamston that he had met with," after others previously named, got into trouble over the rebellion of Earl (afterwards King) John, against his brother, King Richard I., for most of the gentry of Notts, were misled, and aided John, but were let off with penalties. Galfr Luterel paid the Sheriff in 1195 34s. (equal to £34 now), and four years later he had to pay fifteen marks (£10—£200) to regain some land which was subject to the Clifton Court, and which he had forfeited by following Earl John. (25)
It is probable, as evidenced by his recorded fine, that Geoffrey Luttrell, of Nottinghamshire, was present at this siege in support of John. Whether he was with John’s knights at the capture of the castle in 1191 cannot be determined, but it is obvious that Geoffrey’s allegiance to Earl John was established at least by 1194.
The lands in Nottinghamshire forfeited by Geoffrey to King Richard in 1194 and returned to him by King John in 1200 were held by his family until 1418.
1194 Galfr Luterel became Lord of the Manors of Gameleston and Bridgeford (near Nottingham).
1239 Institution of the first recorded Rector of St Giles Church, Luke de Crophill (Luke of Cropwell) by his patron Sir Andrew Lutterell, Lord of the Manor of West Bridgford.
1418 The last male Lutterell died without heir. His sister Hawifia Lutterell had married Godfrey Hilton who then became Lord of the Manor.(24)
1195. Prince John is in France supporting King Richard against the French King.
For the remaining years of Richard's reign, John supported his brother on the continent, apparently loyally. In 1195 John successfully conducted a sudden attack and siege of Évreux castle, and subsequently managed the defences of Normandy against Philip. The following year, John seized the town of Gamaches and led a raiding party within 50 miles (80 km) of Paris, capturing the Bishop of Beauvais. (30)
1197. Prince John (Lord of Ireland) is in Ireland (Killaloe, County Clare, Thomond)
“In this year (1197), Conor, son of Donaldmore, turned against his brother Murchad, King of Thomond, and brought the English into his territory. . . .
In 1197, John Earl of Mortain, afterwards King of England, stayed at Killaloe, and while there granted a charter, making Limerick a corporate town; giving the citizens such liberties as were held by the men of Dublin, and as Hamo de Valois had already granted." (34)
That Geoffrey Luttrell went with his Prince to France in 1195 and Thomond in 1197 is not known but is certainly a possibility. He was unmarried, dispossessed of his property and was, at least later, again in the service of John.
1199. Prince John succeeds his brother and becomes King of England and Duke of Normandy. He continues his reign as Lord of Ireland.
1201. Geoffrey was an Overseer of the Expenses of a royal project for King John (6)
In the second Year of King John (1201), he with William Fitz-Wakelin, (fn. 6) was an Overseer of Hugh Bardolf's Expence of xxxl. for inclosing of Bolsover Park (25)
1202. Geoffrey was a knight in King John’s service in France.
Many members of the French nobility refused to recognize John upon his accession to the English throne and his French lands. They were of the opinion that Arthur had a better claim because his father was an older brother of John. In 1202, 15-year-old Arthur started a campaign against his uncle John in Normandy with the support of King Philip II of France. John marched on Mirebeau, taking Arthur by surprise on July 31, 1202. Arthur was captured and imprisoned in the Château de Falaise in Falaise, Normandy. By 1203, Arthur had disappeared. His fate is unknown, but presumably, he was murdered on the orders of his uncle John. (11)
“On 10 July 1202, whilst in Normandy, Geoffrey was ordered to take his ‘liberaciones. . .sicut alii milites de familia nostra recipient’ (just as the other knights of our family receive) at a rate of seven Angevin shillings a day.” (10)
1203. Geoffrey marries the daughter of a Baron – Frethesant, dau of William Pagnell (Painel/Paynell) of Hooten Pagnell, and gains a large, baronial estate.
William Painel, is the direct descendant of Ralph Painel who is granted many lands by William the Conqueror. The estate in Yorkshire (including Hoton, later known as Hooton Pagnel) is shown in records of 1066 and 1086 as held by Ralph Paynel. Ralph Paynell estates in 1086 – Yorkshire, Devon, Somerset, Gloucestershire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. (28)
“In 1203 Geoffrey acquired Frethesant, daughter and co-heir of the Yorkshire baron, William Painel. This brought to Geoffrey half the Painel barony in Hooten Painel, Yorkshire, valued at seven and a half knights’ fees. . . .” (10)
Pg 119 In the fifth year of King John (15 May 1203—2 June 1204) William Painll was deceased, leaving issue two daughters and co- heiresses, Frethesant, wife of Geoffrey Luterel, and Isabella, then unmarried, as we learn from these fines of that year proving them in possession of the barony of William Painell. "Between Geoffrey Luterel and Frethesant his wife, and Isabella, sister of the same Frethesant, plaintiffs, and Osmund, abbot of Roche, tenant of twelve bovates of land in Thurnscoe^ which WiUiam Vavassour had given in this place. Between Geoffirey Luterel and Frethesant his wife, and Isabel, sister of the same Frethesant, plaintiifs, and Elias, abbot of Kirk- stall, tenant of eleven bovates and of four acres of land with the appurtenances in Hooton Painell, to wit, of all the land, which he held of the fief of William Paynell in the same vill, the right of Frethesant and Isabella." On the roll of Fines of the sixth year of King John, is this entry ; " York- shire. William the Bastard gives forty marks for having in wife the sister of the m^e of Geoffrey Luterell with her inheritance. Mainpernors, William Briwerre of ten marks. The earl of Salisbury of ten marks. Hugh de Neville of ten marks. Peter des Roches of ten marks." This personage was probably a near connection of Peter des Roches, who in this same year, on the 25th of September, 1205, was conse- crated bishop of Winchester. (13)
“The real foundation of the subsequent prosperity of the Luttrell family was laid by the marriage of Sir Geoffrey to a daughter and co-heiress of William Paynell, whose singular Christian name Frethesant is apparently a continental form of the English name Frideswyde. Although this lady's father was only a younger scion of the great family of Paynell, she and her sister, Isabel Bastard, inherited from him no less than fifteen knights' fees, for the most part situated in Yorkshire.(7)
Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, a knight with little property, marries the daughter and heir of a baron. It is not out of the question to see Geoffrey’s marriage to the heiress of a Paynel as evidence of his elevated status in the retinue of King John.
By 1204, he had attained the confidence of John and was acting as his witness to official acts, close counsellor and emissary.
. . .from 1204 to 1215 he (Geoffrey) seems to have been continuously employed in public business in one capacity or another, as the King’s counsellor in Court or as his trusted emissary in Ireland, France or to the Pope (in 1215). (7)
In 1204 . . ."he was appointed on a commission to settle the disputes then existing in Ireland between the justiciary and the Anglo-Norman magnates (the two greatest powers in Ireland, except for the King) of this country, and before its close he was named as a member of an advisory commission sent to this country with an injunction to the authorities to place undoubted reliance on all that the commissioners might expound concerning the King's Irish affairs." (36)
There are numerous entries beginning in 1204 through 1215 showing Geoffrey Luttrell in Ireland at the King’s direction in significantly responsible positions (diplomatic, judicial and financial) and counseling and witnessing acts of the King in Court (9) “It is clear from this outline that Geoffrey spent a considerable period of time ‘in curia’ (in Court). Between November 1204 and November 1205, January 1208 and February 1209, and June 1215 and September 1216 (1215), Geoffrey was in constant attendance on John. During these periods he was presumably one of the King’s trusted counselors, that group of individuals who surrounded the king and did much to foster resentment against King John.” (10)
“Proximity to the king meant access to the very fount of power in England. The men who were closest to the king were the men who both wielded the greatest influence in the realm and acquired the most lucrative rewards that royal service could bring”. (10) Customarily, these men have been the nobility. This is a significant issue with many English nobles, who are accustomed to being the close confidants of the king.
“The majority of John’s household knights—and the majority of those rewarded—were Englishmen ‘of the middling sort’. These are men who, both in and out of wartime, accumulated wealth, power and social status and John bestowed the bulk of his patronage on the “lesser of God’s creatures” whom he could control with the promise of rich reward. Men like Geoffrey Luttrell and John Russell held little to no land before entering the ranks of John’s trusted familiars. Their loyalty and lengthy service earned them wealthy brides and numerous land grants ‘catapulting’ both of their families into the baronial elite. As Church explains ‘the knight who owed everything to the largess of his master would provide a dependable custodian much preferable to an independent minded magnate.’” (12)
1204. Geoffrey acquires the Abbey of Croxton & additional land in 1206
1204. 13 Nov. “In the previous October, the King had confirmed certain grants of land in Croxton and Sedgbrook, which Hugh le Porter had made to the abbey of Croxton, to which house his father had also been a munificent benefactor (pgs 32, 81). At Easter, 1206, Geoffrey Lutrel had become possessed of this estate as appears by letters close dated 13th November, 1204, directing the Sheriff of Lancaster to give Geoffrey seisin of 13 librates of land in Croxton which had belonged to Hugh le Porter. (Close Roll, 6 Jno, m.12) The remaining third-part of this town, which had recently been in the possession of Sarazina de Apegard, was now in the possession of William de St. Aubin and Christina, his wife. Before Michaelmas, 1206, they had been dispossessed as appears by letters close dated 3rd January 1206, directing the Sheriff to give Geoffrey Lutrel seisin of ten markates of land in Croxton formerly belonging to William de St. Aubin and his wife “because the king had given it to him”. (Close Roll, 7 Jno., m6) (26) p. 182-183.
“When war broke out between King John and King Philip Augustus of France in 1204, Hugh Porter fled to his lands in Normandy and John gave Croxton manor to Geoffrey Lutterell of Bescaby and Saltby. He passed it on to his son, Andrew Lutterell, who became sub-sheriff of Nottingham under his father-in-law, Philip Marc, the sheriff of Nottingham.” (27)
1206. Geoffrey was in Poitou and Gascony (France) as one of the King's treasurers. (7)
John was attempting to retake French territory he lost in 1204.
1209. King John appoints Philip Marc, Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the King’s Forests.
Philip Marc, one of several men of Touraine, France, supporters of King John in his war with King Philip II of France, comes to England after John’s defeat by Philip. These men of Touraine are employed by John in England as enforcers of his will and protectors from his own people.
1210. King John awards the Irish castle, Dunamese, to Geoffrey Luttrell. It was formerly held by William Marshall, the Earl of Pembroke.
“In 1210 King John took Dunamase into his own hands as punishment for Marshal’s supposed half-hearted support for John’s expedition against the de Lacys. For a time it was in the hands of Geoffrey Luttrell but it was restored to Marshal in 1215.” (3)
1210. King John invades Ireland to crush a group of rebellious Norman lords.
Historians, who seem to hold King John in disfavor, seem to give him his highest marks in the success he had with governing Ireland, except for his first trip there in 1185, as an inexperienced young prince.
“King Richard took no interest in Ireland, and left the whole management of its affairs to his brother John, who in 1189, appointed Hugh de Lacy, lord justice, in place of John de Courcy.” In 1199, when John succeeded his brother Richard as King, “there were wars and broils everywhere, among both the Irish chiefs and the English nobles, causing wide devastation and misery among the people.”
“Some of the great nobles, and notoriously the De Lacy’s and William de Braose had thrown off all authority and made themselves, to all intents and purposes, independent princes, like John de Courcy.”
“The King returned to England in August 1210. During the remainder of his reign Ireland was comparatively quiet.” (29)
1210 – 1215. Geoffrey is sent to Ireland by King John to act as bailiff and treasurer for the large amounts of money required for King Johns army in Ireland (1210 invasion) and is in Ireland much of the time between 1210 and 1215
("Bailiff" - the king's administrative representative responsible for the application of justice and control of the administration and local finances.")
There are several records for the years 1210-1215 related to Geoffrey in Ireland shown in (9). It is not certain, but probable, that Geoffrey, “who served as John’s bailiff (magistrate) and Sheriff of Dublin”, was in Ireland at least from 1212 to the summer of 1215. (10)
Geoffrey is Sheriff of county Dublin in 1211 in the Pipe Roll of 14 John (begins Michaelmas 1211)
Geoffrey appears to be in Ireland in March 1215 in the following -
2015. March 16. 542. The K. commands Henry Archbishop of Dublin, Thomas Fitz Adam, Godfrey Luterell, and Amfridus de Dena, to cause the issues of all Walter de Lascy's lands in Ireland to be taken and collected, as he had conferred with the K. about making a fine for his lands as well in that country as in England. Tower of London. [Close, 16 John, p, 2, m. 6.] (9)
June 1215 – Magna Carta; rebel English barons force King John to sign “the great charter of English liberties” at Runnymede. John soon reneges on his pledges and goes to war with his barons.
King John is best remembered for granting Magna Carta in June 1215, although he sought its annulment almost immediately. The youngest son of Henry II (r. 1154–89), John succeeded his brother, Richard I (r. 1189–99), as King of England in 1199. His reign was marked by a string of unsuccessful military campaigns, a prolonged struggle with the Church and the baronial rebellion which led to Magna Carta.
John exploited his feudal rights to extort money from the barons: he set taxes at very high levels, he enforced arbitrary fines and he seized the barons’ estates. John used this income to fund his expensive wars in France, but still he failed to hold together the empire created by his father.
John was an efficient and able administrator, but he was also unpredictable and aggressive. He disregarded justice when dealing with opponents, regularly taking hostages and imposing ruthless punishments.
His conflict with the Church led to his excommunication. The annulment of Magna Carta by Pope Innocent III in August 1215, at John’s request, led to a renewal of the baronial revolt which was still raging when John died in October 1216. (31) Article 50 of the charter names several men, supporters of King John, disliked by the English nobles, who are never to again hold office in England. Among those men is Philip Mark, Sheriff of Nottinghamshire.
Philip Marc, like the other men listed in article 50 of Magna Carta, the kinsmen of Gerard de Athée, was a foreigner (France) of a lower class who the nobility of England demanded should never be allowed to hold office in England again. He was a close supporter of King John, whom John appointed Sheriff of Nottingham (yes, Robin Hood’s nemesis) even though, as a recent arrival from his home in France, he could know little of the laws of England. Philip Marc was the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and the Royal Forests from 1209 to the end of 1224 though in the last years, after the civil war, his deputy assumed much of the administration of the office.
King John’s sheriffs were tough men who were chosen for their powerful personalities, strong spirits and cruel behavior. They excelled as military men and fighters and their task as his administrators and governors was to keep the populace in order and to raise taxes. In addition to raising money for the King’s adventures abroad, the sheriffs were expected to clamp down on any hint of baronial rebellion, while King John was giving shires, castles and forest wardenships to his household knights and less than noble supporters, much to the annoyance of the established local families who had a long tradition of service to the crown. The Sheriff of Nottingham was particularly disliked, and along with King John, his equally merciless master, they governed the midland and northern counties with an iron hand. (14)
Geoffrey de Lutterel is shown as a “rebel baron” at Runnymede in (16).
In a book (article), published in 1898, the writer, Charles H.Browning, lists Geoffrey de Luttrell as one of the 200 Barons who "were in arms to procure the Great Charter of Liberties from King John A. D. 1213-15". However, no source material or supporting evidence of any kind is presented for its allegation. It is still promoted online by the National Society of Magna Charta Dames and Barons in the solicitation and determination of membership qualification.(15)
Geoffrey is documented (below) as a witness to many acts of the king in the latter half of 1215, after Runnymede. Other witnesses in Court are close, loyal supporters of King John at Runnymede – Earl William Marshall (17), William Earl of Salisbury (18), Henry Archbishop of Dublin (19), Richard de Burgh (20), Geoffrey de Neville (21), and Geoffrey de Marisco (22).
1215. Geoffrey is in Court as counsellor and a witness to many of King John’s Acts (all related to Ireland) in the latter half of 1215 (after Magna Carta) (9)
After 1206, except for his last assignment from the King, as emissary to the Pope in 1215, Geoffrey’s importance to the King, whether in Court as Counsellor or on missions of state, always seems to be related to Ireland.
(few corrections are made from the source material)
June 27. 564. Grant to Alan Fitz RoUand of the following lands in Ire- land, namely: — The land between Inverarma and the bounds of Dalred, saving to Dunecan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres, which
the K. previously gave to him ; all Crihenelanmerach' ; all Dalred ; the Island of Rachrun ; and all Toschart' ; saving to the K. the castle of Barkesantam, with 10 knights fees about it. Further
grant to Alan of aU the land of Kennaght and Tirketin', saving to 5ie K. 10 knights fees on the Ban within the said land of Kennacht ; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 10 knights. Witnesses,
Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffi-ey Luterel, GeoflBrey de Marisco, Boger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester. [Chart,, 17 John, p. 1, in. 10.]
June 27. 665. Grant to Thomas de Galloway [Galweya], Earl of Athole [Atholmensis], of the following lands, namely: — Killesantan, with the castle of Culrath' ; 10 knights fees in Twescart, near that castle,
on the Ban ; on the other side of the Ban 10 knights fees in Eenact, near the castle ; Duncathel ; with all Twerth' and Clinkinmolan' ; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 2 knights. Witnesses,
Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Mai*shall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Eoger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester. [Chart., 17 JohUf p. 1, m. 10.]
June 27» 566« Grant in frankalmoign, for their common use, to the canons of the church of St. Patrick, in the suburbs of Dublin, of the church of Crumelin, which the K. when Earl of Morton had given
as a prebend to the former church. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh,
Ralph Petit. Winchester. [Chart,, 17 John, p. 1, m. 10.]
July 3. 578. Grant to the K/s burgesses of Dungarvan, of all the liberties and free customs of bridge-toll [de BretoU'] ; to have and to hold of the K. for ever. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William
Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, William Earl of Salisbury, Hubert de Burgh, justiciary of England, William Briewerr', Geoffrey de Neville, Geoflfrey de Marisco, Philip de Wigom, Geoffirey Lutrell, Roger
Pipard, Ralph Petit. Marlborough. [Chart., 17 John, p. 1, m. 9.] The same grant repeated. [Ibid.]
July 3. 579. Grant to all those who have taken from the K.'s citizens ol Limerick lands belonging to the 40 carucates assigned to the city in burgage, by John Bishop of Norwich, formerly justiciary of Ireland,
that they may have and hold those lands of the K. for ever, at the rent fixed by the justiciary, and that they may build upon them. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, Henry Bishop of Emly,
William MarshaU, Earl of Pembroke, William Earl of Salisbury, Hubert de Burgh, justiciary of England, William Briwerr, Geoffrey de NeviU, Geoflfrey de Marisco, Philip de Wigom, Geoflfirey Lutrell,
Roger Pipard, Ralph Petit. Marlborough. [Chart., 17 John, p, 1, m. 9.]
Sept. 6. 649. Grant to Patrick's church, Cashel, and to Donat Archbishop of Cashel, of 5 vills in Thomond [Tuadmonia], which the Archbishop has of the gift of Donedhad Earbregh' O'Bren in the fee Doncdhad held of the E., namely : — ^tiie vills of Dunmugyda Inver, dochon Sualcayn', FumanejTT Idulculchy, Fumanes Ydoonmall', and Tomracli', with all ecclefdastical benefices, villeins, and two islands in the sea called ^, r^^ ,^,^ ^ jbiskereth' and LusmateU', which the Archbishop likewise has of » ^ ^^ ^^'^ the gift of Dunckad. l^itnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, Hubert de Burgh, justiciary of England, GeoflBrey Luterell, Anfiidus de Den', Bichard de Burgh, Baldwin de Hantreford, Ridiard Fitz
Elye. Dover. [Chart, 17 John, p. 1, m. 3.]
Sept. 13. 654. Grant and confirmation to the King of Kunnoc' [Connaught], of all the land of Connaught ; to hold of the E. in fee during good service ; the E. of Connaught shall not be disseised of his land without judgment of the E.'s court ; rendering for ever to the E. 300 maxks at the K.'s Exchequer of Dublin ; namely, 100 marks at Michaelmas, a like amount at the PuriiScation [Feb. 2], and a like amount at Easter ; saving to the K. the castle of Athlone. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, Qeofirey de Marisoo, Roger Fipard, Walter de Rudeford', Eustace de Rupe, Ralph Petit, Geoffrey LuterelL Dover. [Chart., 17 John, p. 1, m. 3.]
1215. 669. Ireland: — The K., by coimsel of Geoflfrey Luterell and Thomas Fitz Adam, grants to Muriard O'Bren the 4 cantreds in Thomond. . .
1215. Aug 2. Geoffrey is rewarded by the king with the purchase of a sizable and significant estate in Ireland (Cratalech woods in Thomond)
Aug. 2. 633. The E. to OeoflSrey de Mariscis. Gift for ever to Godfrey Luterel of the E's (King’s) wood of Cratelerch', in Thomond. Mandate that when Godfrey shall have given surety for 20 ounces of gold, seisin be delivered to him. Worcester. By Henry Archbishop of Dublin. [Pat., 17 John, m. 18.] (10)
"At one stage the Cratloe Woods were famous for primeval oak woods. In the ninth century the Ulstermen invaded the MacNamara territory and carried home oak timbers to roof the Royal palace of Aileach near Derry. Cratloe also supplied the oak beams for the roof of Westminster Hall, London and the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. In 1215 Geoffrey Lutterel was granted "the land of Crateluach" by King John for thirty ounces of silver. From that time the great woods of Cratloe were gradually cut away. . . .Cratloe's importance stems from the fact that it was one of the major passes on highways from Munster into Connacht as the hills to the north, and the Shannon to the south, rendered these routes inaccessible." (32)
1215. Aug. 10. King John reclaims the Castle of Dunamese in Ireland from Geoffrey, returning it to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke
It seems that Geoffrey resisted returning the property to its previous owner. On August 10 the king orders Geoffrey to deliver the castle to Marshall. Eleven days later John issues an order to the justiaciary in Ireland to order Geoffrey to deliver Dunamese to Marshall “as the King has so commanded”. (9)
1215. Geoffrey is sent by King John on an historically significant matter of state to the Pope in Rome in late 1215.
“In I215, John appointed Sir Geoffrey Luttrell to be his sole agent in negotiations with regard to the dower of Queen Berengaria, commissioning him at the same time to join with the Archbishops of Bordeaux and Dublin in denouncing to the Pope the rebellious barons who had recently extorted the Great Charter of English Liberties. In one of the documents connected with this business, he is styled ' nobilis vir' ^ His mission was so far successful that Innocent the Third annulled the Charter, suspended the Archbishop of Canterbury, and excommunicated the barons, but it is uncertain whether Sir Geoffrey Luttrell was one of those who conveyed the papal bull from Rome to England. The exact date of his death, which must have taken place in 1216, or at the latest in 1217, is not recorded.” (7)
“By other Letters Patent, dated at Dover, 18th day of September, 1215, addressed to Pope Innocent III., King John appointed the venerable fathers, William of Bourdeaux and Henry of Dublin, archbishops, Master Richard his chancellor, the abbot of Beaulieu, Master Peter, precentor of the church of York, and Honorius, archdeacon, and Master Robert de Airaines, canon of York, and the noblemen, John Marshal and Geofirey Luterel, his liegemen, to be the bearers of his correspondence t^ the apostolic see, and his procurators; and he had previously caused GeoflBrey Luterel, his knight, to swear on his behalf by the king's soul, that he would observe every thing contained in his charter, whereby he had made an agreement between himself and the lady Queen Berengaria, late wife of the lord King Richard, his brother, as to her dower.” (13)
In November 1215, “Roger of Wendover has it that Godfrey of Crowcombe, along with the abbot of Beaulieu, and once again, with the household knight Thomas of Erdington presented John’s accusation at the Fourth Lateran Council that Stephen Langton had been conniving with the rebel barons. Geoffrey Luttrell, another household knight, was also sent to the papal court. Geoffrey was in Rome at the end of 1215, when he was to stand surety for an agreement between King John and Berengaria, the widow of King Richard. Both Godfrey of Crowcombe and Geoffrey Luttrell were clearly held in high esteem by King John. The king patently appreciated qualities in these two household knights which one might not traditionally associate with a knight.” (10)
1215. (Dec 22 Meath) Geoffrey arranges the marriage of the second daughter of Hugh de Tuit for an unknown male in Ireland (9)
(same day others pay fines for marriages of Hugh de Tuit daughters)
The date shown in (9) above, if accurate, would seem to show that Geoffrey did return from Rome by the end of 1215, shortly before his death
On the roll of Fines of the seventeenth year of King John (1215), are several entries related to the Tuits, all dated 1215. Dec 22, Meath.
. . . including,
"Ireland. Geoffrey Luterel gives to the lord the king £88. 13s. 4d. for the marriage of the second born daughter of Hugh de Tuit. (5)(9) Neither her age nor her intended husband are known. Sir Geoffrey likely also received wardship as Hugh de Tuit is deceased.
Hugh de Tuit, is the son of Richard de Tuit, who came to Ireland in the invasion force of the Earl of Pembroke (Strongbow) in 1172. Richard was one of the barons of Hugh de Lacy awarded vast lands in Westmeath and Longford including Granard and Sonnagh. He built one of the largest Motte and Bailey settlements in Ireland in Granard in 1199. His death, while Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, is recorded in Athlone by the Annals of the Four Masters under the year 1210 and his remains lie today in Abbeylara's Cistercian abbey.
Hugh de Tuit is shown in 1211 as "sowing the land at Granard". (33) In 1206/07 Hugh de Tuit is identified as a hostage at Winchester and the son of Richard de Tut (9).
Sir Geoffrey Luttrell apparently dies in 1216/17.
. . .”it is uncertain whether Sir Geoffrey Luttrell was one of those who conveyed the papal bull from Rome to England. The exact date of his death, which must have taken place in 1216, or at the latest in 1217, is not recorded.” (7)
“On his mission to Rome Geoffrey Luterel was attacked by illness, which proved fatal, as appears by this entry on the Close roll of the first year of Henry the Third.” (13)
Regarding the manor of Barton which King John had bestowed on Geoffrey Luttrell on September 5 in the seventh year of King John (1206-07).
“"The king to the sherifi* of Yorkshire, greeting. We enjoin you that you cause without delay Frethesant, who had been the wife of Geoffrey Luterel, and Eustace de Grainville, who has the custody of the daughter and heir of William the Bastard at the hands of the bishop of Winchester, to have such seizin of Barton^, and of all their other lands with their appurtenances in your bailiwick, as they had thereof before the war carried on between the lord the king and his barons. Witness the earl himself at Lambeth, 23rd day of September/' (1217.) (13)
The text referred to by (13) regarding Geoffrey Luttrell’s death “by illness” does not seem conclusive. His death, prior to 23 Sept 1217, is certain but the cause of his death seems to be unsubstantiated. The idea that Luttrell died “on his mission” is inferred but not stated. There is room for the possibility that he contracted an illness while on his mission but did not die, from that illness, until after his return.
1216. King John dies.
King John died, while at war with his barons, from disease in October 1216.
1217. King Henry III places Andrew Luttrell, Geoffrey’s son and heir, as a ward and future son-in-law to Philip Marc.
"On the Close roll of the second year of the reign of Henry the Third (1217) are these entries; "Of the marriage of the heir of Geoffrey Luterel. The king to Philip Marc, greeting. Know ye that we are full willing and in as much as belongs to us, we grant that you may have the son and heir of Geoffrey Luterell to marry to your daughter. . ." (5)
"Andrew Luttrell was made to marry a daughter of his guardian (Philip Marc), Petronilla by name." In 1229 Andrew succeeded to the estates of his father and mother as well as "the whole inheritance of his grandfather, William Paganel". (6)
King Henry III gives wardship of Geoffrey Luttrell’s daughter to Philip Marc. She will marry his son. All of Geoffrey’s Irish properties, inherited by her, now belong to Philip Marc.
In 1217, 1218 & 1219 King Henry III issues commands that cause an accounting of all lands in Ireland that were held by Geoffrey, given to him by King John. They are to be given to Philip Marc. Either Philip Marc wasn’t satisfied that he received all of Geoffrey’s estate in Ireland or others were attempting to possess them for themselves.
1218. 821. Mandate to the justiciary to give seisin to Philip Marc, of March 30. All the lands which belonged to Geoffrey Luterell, whose daughter and heir the K. has given in marriage to Philip. Oxford. Further mandate to justiciary to give seisin to Philip, of all wards granted to Geoffrey by King John. [Pat, 2 Hen. Ill, p. 1, m. 6.]
This may apply to the wardship Sir Geoffrey Luttrell received with the marriage right of the second daughter of Hugh de Tuit.
1218. Jan. 17. 861. Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland, that he to cause to be inquired by liege men what lands King John gave to Godfrey Luterel in Ireland ; and when certified thereon, that he cause Philip Marc, to have the land. The K. has granted to Philip the custody of the lands and heir of Godfrey. The justiciary shall certify what lands Godfrey had in Ireland of the gift of King John. Westminster.
[Close, 3 Hen. Ill, p. 2, m. 12.]
1218/1219. June 20. 881. The K. commands Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland, to cause PhUip Marc, to have seisin of the land which belonged to GodJfrey LutereU in Cratalauch [? Carlow], given to him by King John, notwithstanding that the justiciary has committed it without the K.'s mandate to John MacDermot in exchange for his land worth 10 marks. Westminster. [Close, 3 Hen. III., p. 2, m. 7.]
1218/1219. Aug. 22. 889. Mandate . to the justiciary to give seisin to Philip Mar' [? Marc] of all the lands which belonged to Godfrey Luterel, whose daughter and heir the K has given in marriage to Philip. [PcU., 3 Hen. III., p. 1, m. 2.] (9)
Philip Marc profited greatly from the wardship and marriages of Geoffrey Luttrell’s son and daughter whom the King (Henry III) awarded him after Geoffrey’s death. He accumulated all of the properties in Ireland Geoffrey was awarded by King John.
Was Philip, by acquiring guardianship of Geoffrey Luttrell’s son (England) and daughter (Ireland?), opportunistically seeking profit or was there a relationship between he and Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, also of Nottinghamshire, and, also a close follower of King John?
Was Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, actually a “rebel baron” at Runnymede who paid for his royal transgression with his life at the hands of the King’s enforcer who was rewarded with much that Geoffrey possessed in life?
Though I, as one who claims possible ancestry from Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, would have preferred to find that he made a bold stand in support of the Great Charter of Liberties, Geoffrey’s continued presence in Court, as one of the King’s close and loyal advisers, and his subsequent mission of state to the Pope seems to offer sufficient evidence that King John did not view him as disloyal.
Geoffrey Luttrell seems to me to have been an intelligent and diplomatically gifted man who, early in his adult life, recognized opportunity and responded to it. Though his liege lord was known for petty and ruthless vindictiveness and violent fits of rage, Geoffrey Luttrell, who served the King throughout his entire adult life in historically significant positions of trust, requiring high levels of maturity, courage, diplomacy and wisdom, seems to have been a quiet, stable and trusted voice of reason and integrity which King John relied upon throughout his reign, especially in matters regarding Ireland.
c. Glenn Luttrell
January 14, 2020
(This is a work in progress. This page last updated Jan 28, 2020)
You are welcome to copy any of the above if you include attribution to TheLuttrells.com
REFERENCES FOR THIS PAGE
1. Burke, John., A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland
Vol. 1. London: Henry Colburn, n.d., Call Number: R929.725 B95 v.1, Page 142
2 . Per https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John,_King_of_England
3. The Sources for the History of Dunamase Castle in the Medieval period By: B.J. Hodkinson
4. A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain and ... By John Burke
5. Memoirs Illustrative of the History and Antiquities of the County and City of York:
Communicated to the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Held at York, July, 1846, with a General Report of the Proceedings of the Meeting, and Catalogue of the Museum Formed on that Occasion (Google eBook)By Royal Archaeological Institute (Great Britain
6. DUNSTER AND ITS LORDS by H. C. Maxwell-Lyte, 1882
7. A HISTORY OF D U N ST E R AND OF THE FAMILIES OF MOHUN & LUTTRELL
BY SIR H.C.MAXWELL LYTE,K.C.B. Deputy Keeper of the Records. 1909
8. History of the Parish and Manorhouse of Bishopthorpe: Together with an ...
By John Robert Keble, Arthur Perceval Purey
9. Calendar Of Documents Relating To Ireland by Sweetman
10. The Household Knights of King John by S. D. Church, Cambridge University Press, 1999
12. In a review of “The Household Knights of King John” by s. D. church, by Kristen Lee Over publ. 2000
Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 31(1) p. 239
13. MEMOIRS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES COUNTY AND CITY OF YORK,
COMMUNICATED TO THE ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT YORK, JULY, 1846
14. Dunster, A Castle At War by Jim Lee
15. National Society Magna Charta Dames and Barons
16. The Magna charta barons and their American descendants with the pedigrees of the founders of the Order of Runnemede deduced from the sureties for the enforcement of the statutes of the Magna charta of King John" Copyright, 1898, BY CHARLES H. BROWNING.
Lacks source material for included persons
17. re: William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke – loyal to John through Runnymede
Despite their differences, William remained loyal throughout the hostilities between John and his barons which culminated on 15 June 1215 at Runnymede with the sealing of Magna Carta. William was one of the few English earls to remain loyal to the king through the First Barons' War.
18. re: William Earl of Salisbury, the half-bro of King John –loyal to John at Runnymede
19. re: Henry Archbishop of Dublin – much trusted by John, attended him at Runnymede
He was an influential figure in the reign of John of England, an administrator and loyalist to the king, and is mentioned in the text of Magna Carta, the terms of which he helped to negotiate.
20. re: Hubert de Burgh – Seneschal to Poitou until it was lost in 1214 – loyal to John
21. re: Geoffrey de Neville – loyal to John
22. re: Geoffrey de Marisco – appointed Justiciar of Ireland July 1215 – loyal to John
23. The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194 by Sandra Alvarez Posted on March 25, 2014
24. The West Bridgford and District Local History Society http://bridgfordhistory.org/timeline.html
25. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/thoroton-notts/vol1/pp117-121 Geoffrey Luttrell and following generations of Irnham
Same info at http://www.nottshistory.org.uk/articles/mellorsarticles/westbridgford3.htm
26. The Lancashire Pipe Rolls – Roll of 6 John (1203 – 1204)
28. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1870/1/DX182025.pdf Paul Dalton thesis
33. ULSTER JOURNAL OF ARCHL1OLOGY Volume 4 Supplement, July, 1941
The Irish Pipe Roll of 14 John, 1211-1212. Edited by OLIVER DAVIES and DAVID B. QUINN
34. Killaloe: Its Ancient Palaces and Cathedral by Thomas Johnson Westropp
36. A History of the County Dublin, Vol. IV, Parish of Clonsilla by F. E Ball